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标题:The cerebral effects of ascent to high altitudes
时间:2021-07-31 20:34:18
DOI:10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70014-6
大小:1506 kb
页数:18 PAGES
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目录:
  • The cerebral eff ects of ascent to high altitudes
    • Introduction
    • Neurological eff ects of hypobaric hypoxia
      • High-altitude headache
      • Acute mountain sickness
      • High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE)
      • Other neurological syndromes
        • Ophthalmological disturbances
        • Sleep disturbances at high altitude
        • Chronic mountain sickness
      • High-altitude illness in children
    • Neuropsychological effects of hypobaric hypoxia
      • Perception
      • Memory
      • Motor skills
      • Psychological changes
    • Evidence of long-term brain injury
    • Genetic predisposition to AMS
      • Erythropoietin
      • HIF-1 alpha
      • ACE
      • CYP11B2
      • NOS3
      • Other candidate genes
    • Current pathophysiological theories
      • Direct measurements of intracranial pressure
      • Indirect measures of intracranial pressure
        • Tympanic membrane displacement
        • Optic nerve sheath diameter
      • Studying the brain under fi eld conditions
        • Cerebral oxygenation at altitude
        • Brain oxygen consumption
        • Changes in cerebral blood fl ow at altitude
    • Brain imaging investigations
      • Imaging changes in patients with AMS
      • Imaging and autopsy changes with HACE
    • AMS and HACE at the level of the vessels
      • Factors that aff ect vessel tone
        • Oxygen and carbon dioxide
        • Adenosine
        • Potassium ions
        • Nitric oxide
        • Brain oedema
      • Factors that affect vessel permeability
        • Hydrostatic pressure
        • Venous hypertension
        • Direct effects of hypoxia
        • HIF-1
        • Vascular endothelial growth factor
        • Free radicals
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

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