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标题:Security of Cryptocurrencies in blockchain technology: State-of-art, challenges and future prospects
时间:2020-06-30 23:10:57
DOI:10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102635
大小:5088 kb
页数:36 PAGES
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目录:
  • Security of Cryptocurrencies in blockchain technology: State-of-art, challenges and future prospects
    • 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Background
      • 1.2. Motivation
      • 1.3. Blockchain in bitcoin
      • 1.4. Blockchain in ethereum
      • 1.5. Our contribution
      • 1.6. Outline
    • 2. Overview of blockchain
      • 2.1. Structure of blockchain
        • 2.1.1. Block header
        • 2.1.2. Block Body
      • 2.2. Lifecycle of a transaction in a cryptocurrency network
      • 2.3. Expansion of blockchain through addition of new blocks
        • 2.3.1. Full node
        • 2.3.2. Lightweight nodes
    • 3. Blockchain technologies: forks and consensus methodologies
      • 3.1. Forks
        • 3.1.1. Soft forks
        • 3.1.2. Hard forks
      • 3.2. Consensus methodologies
        • 3.2.1. Proof of work (PoW) algorithm
        • 3.2.2. Proof of stake (PoS)
        • 3.2.3. Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)
        • 3.2.4. DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake)
        • 3.2.5. Ripple
        • 3.2.6. Tendermint
      • 3.3. Qualities of a good consensus algorithm
      • 3.4. Smart contract
        • 3.4.14.1. Smart contract in ethereum
      • 3.5. Techniques for generating the consensus
        • 3.5.1. Advertisement-based propagation
        • 3.5.2. Sendheaders propagation
        • 3.5.3. Unsolicited push propagation
        • 3.5.4. Relay network propagation
        • 3.5.5. Push/advertisement hybrid propagation
      • 3.6. Cross-chain communication
    • 4. Taxonomy of blockchain
      • 4.1. Permission-based
        • 4.1.1. Permissioned blockchains
        • 4.1.2. Permissionless or public blockchains
      • 4.2. Participation-based
        • 4.2.1. Public blockchains
        • 4.2.2. Consortium blockchains
        • 4.2.3. Private blockchains
      • 4.3. Methods for selecting blockchain
      • 4.4. Primary features of blockchain
      • 4.5. Applications of blockchain
        • 4.5.1. Finance
        • 4.5.2. IoT (internet of things)
        • 4.5.3. Social services
        • 4.5.4. Reputation system
        • 4.5.5. Security and privacy
        • 4.5.6. Security and privacy
        • 4.5.7. Secure blockchain solution in cloud computing
    • 5. Blockchain platforms and ITS security challenges
      • 5. 1Cryptocurrencies
        • 5.1.1. Bitcoin (BTC)
        • 5.1.2. Bitcoin Cash (BCC)
        • 5.1.3. Litecoin (LTC)
        • 5.1.4. Ethereum (ETH)
        • 5.1.5. Ethereum Classic (ETC)
        • 5.1.6. Dash (DASH)
        • 5.1.7. Ripple (XRP)
      • 5. 2Hyperledger
        • 5.2.1. Hyperledger Fabric
        • 5.2.2. Hyperledger Sawtooth
        • 5.2.3. Hyperledger Iroha
        • 5.2.4. Hyperledger Burrow
        • 5.2.5. Hyperledger Indy
      • 5.3. MultiChain
      • 5.4. Security issues and challenges in blockchain systems
        • 5.4.1. Challenges
      • 5.5. Attacks on blockchain systems
        • 5.5.1. Attacks on bitcoin
          • 5.5.1.1. Double spending concept
          • 5.5.1.2. Precaution in blockchain
          • 5.5.1.3. Double spending in blockchain
          • 5.5.1.4. Finney attack (Wong and Kar, 2016b)
          • 5.5.1.5. Precaution
          • 5.5.1.6. Brute-force attack (pearson)
          • 5.5.1.7. Vector 76 attack (What Is Dash?)
          • 5.5.1.8. Balance attack (Natoli and Gramoli, 2016)
          • 5.5.1.9. Goldfinger attack (Kroll et al., 2013)
      • 5.6. Attacks on ethereum
        • 5.6.1. Call to the unknown
        • 5.6.2. Gasless send
        • 5.6.3. Exception disorder
        • 5.6.4. Immutable bugs
        • 5.6.5. Reentrancy
        • 5.6.6. Keeping secrets
        • 5.6.7. The DAO attack (understanding the DAO attack)
        • 5.6.8. King of ether throne ([119], king of the ether thronea; king of the ether throneb)
        • 5.6.9. Multi-player games
        • 5.6.10. Rubixi (Bitcointalk, 1400; Etherscan, 2719)
        • 5.6.11. Dynamic libraries
    • 6. Security enhancements in blockchain
      • 6.1. SmartPool
      • 6.2. Quantitative framework
      • 6.3. Oyente
      • 6.4. Hawk
      • 6.5. Town crier
      • 6.6. Future trends
    • 7. Concluding remarks
    • Authors statement
    • Declaration of competing interest
    • Acknowledgement
    • References

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