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标题:Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in neurological disease.
时间:2020-03-26 23:16:52
DOI:10.1038/s41582-018-0112-x
PMID:30559466
作者:Markus;Reindl;Patrick
摘要:Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (MOG-Abs) were first detected by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay nearly 30 years ago, but their association with multiple sclerosis (MS) was not specific. Use of cell-based assays with native MOG as the substrate enabled identification of a group of MOG-Ab-positive patients with demyelinating phenotypes. Initially, MOG-Abs were reported in children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Further studies identified MOG-Abs in adults and children with ADEM, seizures, encephalitis, anti-aquaporin-4-antibody (AQP4-Ab)-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and related syndromes (optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem encephalitis), but rarely in MS. This shift in our understanding of the diagnostic assays has re-invigorated the examination of MOG-Abs and their role in autoimmune and demyelinating disorders of the CNS. The clinical phenotypes, disease courses and responses to treatment that are associated with MOG-Abs are currently being defined. MOG-Ab-associated disease is different to AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD and MS. This Review provides an overview of the current knowledge of MOG, the metrics of MOG-Ab assays and the clinical associations identified. We collate the data on antibody pathogenicity and the mechanisms that are thought to underlie this. We also highlight differences between MOG-Ab-associated disease, NMOSD and MS, and describe our current understanding on how best to treat MOG-Ab-associated disease.
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目录:
  • Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in neurological disease
    • Detecting MOG-​Abs
      • Immunoblotting and ELISA.
      • Specific tests show clinical associations.
      • MOG-​Ab assay recommendations.
      • Recommendations for anti-​MOG antibody testing
    • Clinical features
      • Frequency in children.
      • Age dependence of clinical features.
      • MOG-​Abs in ADEM and encephalitis.
      • Treatment response and clinical outcomes.
    • Pathogenic role of MOG-​Abs
    • The place of MOG-​Ab-associated disease
    • Future directions
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
    • Fig. 1 The structures and functions of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein isoforms.
    • Fig. 2 Anti-​MOG antibodies are associated with anti-​aquaporin-4-antibody-​negative non-​multiple sclerosis demyelinating diseases.
    • Fig. 3 The seroprevalence and clinical presentations associated with anti-​MOG antibodies are age-​dependent.
    • Table 1 Demographic, clinical and MRI features of MS, AQP4-Ab-​NMOSD and MOG-​Ab-associated disease.
    • Table 2 Demographic and clinical features of cohorts in three large studies of MOG-​Ab-associated disease.

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