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标题:Chemical and Physical Properties of Emollients
时间:2019-07-12 02:08:01
DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-27606-4_26
作者:Jari T. Alander
摘要:Emollients are essential ingredients in all types of skin care products. The selection of the emollient phase will determine skin feel, moisturization capacity, and stability of the formulation. Emollients can be classified according to ...
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目录:
  • 26: Chemical and Physical Properties of Emollients
    • 26.1 Introduction
    • 26.2 Emollient Functionality Is Complex
      • 26.2.1 Emollients Determine the Structure of the Formulation
      • 26.2.2 Skin Feel Is Influenced by the Choice of Emollient
    • 26.3 Principles for Emollient Classification
      • 26.3.1 Emollient Classification Based on Molecular Structure
      • 26.3.2 Classification Based on Physical Properties
        • 26.3.2.1 Factors Affecting the Polarity of Emollients
        • 26.3.2.2 Rheology as a Tool to Describe Emollients
    • 26.4 Individual Emollient Groups
      • 26.4.1 Hydrocarbon-Based Emollients
        • 26.4.1.1 Naturally Occurring Hydrocarbons
          • Squalane and Squalene
          • Petrolatum and Mineral Oil
        • 26.4.1.2 Synthetic Hydrocarbons
      • 26.4.2 Alcohol-Based Emollients
        • 26.4.2.1 Long Chain Fatty Alcohols
      • 26.4.3 Ester-Based Emollients
        • 26.4.3.1 Simple Esters
          • Raw Materials for Simple Esters
            • Carboxylic Acids for Ester Production
            • Natural Fatty Acids
            • Synthetic Fatty Acids
            • Alcohol Sources for Esters
            • Low Molecular Weight Alcohols
            • Long Chain Alcohols
          • Production Methods
            • Classic Methods: Direct Esterification and Transesterification
            • New Developments in Esterification: Enzyme Catalysis
        • 26.4.3.2 Emollients Based on Triglycerides
          • Natural Oils and Fats
            • Raw Materials Based on Natural Oils and Fats
            • Extraction, Purification, and Modification of Vegetable Oils and Fats
            • Some Common Natural Oil-Based Emollients and Their Properties [ 23 ]
          • Synthetic Triglycerides and Analogues
        • 26.4.3.3 Complex Esters
          • Polyacid and Polyhydric Esters
          • Lanolin and Lanolin Derivatives
    • 26.5 Important Properties to Consider When Selecting Emollients
      • 26.5.1 Compositional Aspects of Emollient Selection
        • 26.5.1.1 Contaminants: Environmental and Processing Dependent
        • 26.5.1.2 By-Products, Processing Aids, and Other Residues from Manufacturing
      • 26.5.2 Chemical Properties to Consider when Selecting Emollients
        • 26.5.2.1 Oxidation: Rancidity and Skin Damage
        • 26.5.2.2 Hydrolysis of Esters Gives Texture Changes in the Formulation
      • 26.5.3 Selecting Emollients Based on Physicochemical Behavior
        • 26.5.3.1 Melting Points Versus Melting Ranges
        • 26.5.3.2 Optimizing the Polarity by Mixing Emollients
        • 26.5.3.3 Controlling Viscosity and Lubricity for Improved Skin Feel
        • 26.5.3.4 Spreading and Spreadability
      • 26.5.4 Environmental Properties
    • Conclusions
    • References

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